“Ferrari”, the Italian company specializing on release of racing and elite cars. With 1989 is concern “FIAT” affiliated company. The Headquarters is in Maranello.
The company (its initial name was Auto Avio Costruzioni) has been based in 1939 well-known racer and the verifier of cars “Alpha Romeos” Enzo Ferrari. Originally it made the various equipment for cars. The cars made the company were issued under mark “Alpha Romeo”. With this company Ferrari had a contract. The first car bearing already actually a name “Ferrari” appeared in 1946. It was Ferrari 125 model, with the powerful 12-cylinder aluminium engine, called to realize dream of its founder: to give to the ordinary road car of property racing without infringement of comfortableness. As a trade mark of firm Enzo of Ferrari selected a skipping stallion on a yellow background.
By the end 1947 there were already two versions of engine “Ferrari”, and its working volume grew at model 166 to 1995 own command “Ferrari” see for the first time next year won a victory in races of Mille-Milja and Targa-Florio. 1949 brought to a command and new triumph in the same competitions, and a bit later a victory in race «24 hours of Le Mans».
In 1951 appears этапная model 340 America with the engine originally developed for Ferrari GT with a working volume of 4,1 liters. In 1953 the same car is equipped with the engine in volume of 4,5 liters and receives a new name — 375 America. The same year “Ferrari” represents 250 Europa, with the three-liter engine.
In total to the beginning of 1954 Enzo of Ferrari exhausted about 200 cars in an is exclusive-road variant and 250 racing models. Creating the road cars, Ferrari addressed to the different design companies, doing the models unlike against each other. But model 250 GT of 1954 began long-term and most fruitful cooperation with company “Pininfarina” which as well as possible has arranged the bodies to new короткобазным the chassis at which the leading rear axle has been suspended on springs.
Already model 250 GT exhausted not only as a coupe, but also a cabriolet, and appeared in 1959 250GT California, made to order, — the bright sample of open model 250 GT of sports type. In 1958 “Pininfarina” created for model 250 GT of a body of specifically angular form: these cars equipped with the 12-cylinder engine, and outwardly made impression of huge power, ideally obedient to any desires of the owners.
Models 375 America and replaced it in 1956 410 Super America (them it has been exhausted only 14) intended for “mighty of this world”: their design cast sensation of force and self-trust.
With 1957 for 1962 was issued altered «Ferrari 250 GT California» with rapaciously pointed cross-section and a demountable roof. This car gained the first victory in races Tourist Trophy of 1960 on a line of Gudvud.
“Ferrari” belong the most remembered cars of 60th years of our century: 250GT in 1960 has been transformed in фастбек 250GTE with a body «2+2», elegant and popular on which base in 1964 has been created 330GT «2+2» with the four-liter motor and original “mowing” headlights. Unsurpassed remained womanly-graceful, prompt Berlinetta Lusso 1962, accelerating momentum over 225 km/h. On change 330GT «2+2» in 1967 came 365GT «2+2» with a self-balanced rear suspension and the steering booster. In 1971 it more strict replaced according to a spirit of the age 365GT4.
In 1966 firm developed the new V-engine originating in racing motors: 12-cylinder, четырехкулачковый, with two cam shafts in each head of cylinders, the lubricating system with the dry crankcase, the provided high twisting moment and the flexibility, 300 h.p. having capacity
In 1968 “Ferraris” exhausted legendary Daytona, or 365GTB/4, with a front arrangement of the 4,4-litre V-shaped 12-cylinder engine, capacity of 352 h.p., developing superspeed — 282 km/h. This model outwardly constrained and functional, is the most high-speed in the world car and, certainly, its advertising estimation as «the best in the world» is not too far from true.
In the early seventies there was a model “Dino”, named in honour of died son Kommendatore, with is central the located engine of manufacture FIAT – V-shaped 6-cylinder; the model was issued and in a 8-cylinder variant, but the 6-cylinder model is considered classical. At one time “Dino” was actually separate mark. Car “Dino-206GТ” was issued since 1967 with engine V6 (1987 sm3 of 180 l. With. At 8000 rpm; since 1969 – “246 GT”-2418 sm3, 195 l. With. At 7600 rpm). Just the same, nonconventional motors for “Ferrari” stood on sports “Fiat Dino”.
The model 365GT4, or Berlinetta Boxer, 1971, had many lines of racing cars «Ferrari: its engine a working volume of 4,4 litres could accelerate momentum 275 km/h; it has been located horizontally in the middle of a body, and the gear box for more rational use of internal volume of a body settled down under the motor. The chassis also made use of experience of racing cars: a spatial tubular frame and steel body panels. On the basis of Ferrari 308GT4 elegant models with bodies of”Pininfarina”became; equipped with V-shaped 8-cylinder engines, they drew attention of buyers prior to the beginning of 80th years.
Establishing horizontal 12-cylinder motor Boxer of racing model 512BB on Testarossa, the company created the massive heavy car meeting the most exacting requirements as sportsmen-racers and «зведных» of clients. Bright bright design “Pininfarin” bore in itself quintessence of advertising spirit, and its founder achieved not only an outer effect: ridge lateral воздухоприемники, the imitators which have found set, served for air giving in the lateral radiators which have replaced a front radiator 512BB. Technical indicators of model also were faultless: five-litre engine Testarossa, with four valves on the cylinder, reached capacities of 390 h.p., and its maximum speed — 274 km/h.
In 1987 founder of company Enzo Ferrari headed collective of the designers who have prepared model F40, designated as «the sum of efforts of the company for years of its existence». The beginning F40 conducts from GTO 1984 and, at first sight, has much in common from Ferrari 308GTB, however has essential technical innovations: the turbo-supercharging, the V-shaped 8-cylinder engine longitudinal (instead of cross-section) the arrangements, established on the tubular frame strengthened by bearing panels from кевлара, of 478 h.p. — all says supercapacity that former there was only a configuration. The body of this supermodel is executed from углеволокна and кевлара, and its close interior quite answers sports essence of the car: in it there is no even a gear for resetting of seats. Amazing technical characteristics and any comfort here the motto 1118-kilogramme Ferrari F40: The rigid suspension did not absorb road roughnesses, the wheel responded to each hollow, and the magnificent motor showed infinite power. Exacting, uncontrollably vigorous and attractive — last child of the founder of firm became such.
Company “Ferrari” cars, with 1969 supervised by FIAT, and with 1989 definitively departed to corporation, are reputed as the most expensive in the world. Each of them is a legend.
In the autumn of 1992 the high-power rear-wheel sporty coupe of classical configuration was published in Paris 456 GT/GTA. Design – Pininfarina. GTA – March 1996 (Geneva). ASR, the modernised body, a suspender and interior (4 places) – March 1998, Geneva.
In May, 1994 there was F355, a sports car the successor 348 GTB/GTS. The cheapest and popular model of firm. Design – Pininfarina. In the spring of 1995 appeared Spider – a cabriolet. Berlinetta – a coupe, GTS – a coupe with a demountable rigid roof, F1 – management of transmission as the racing car. Phase-out Berlinetta/Targa – summer 1997.
550 Maranello successor Testarossa/512 is made on base 456GT. Design – Pininfarina. A debut – on July, 20th 1996.
Model 360 Modena – successor F355 Berlinetta. Design – Pininfarina. The premiere took place in March, 1999 in Geneva. The beginning of sales – summer 1999.
On a showroom in Paris which passes in September 2003 г, the Italian firm of Ferrari plans to show the most powerful in Europe the serial car. It is a question of special model “Enzo of Ferrari”. Occurrence of special model in honor of the well-known designer urged to remind the automobile world of the advanced design school of Ferrari which convincingly proves to be true outstanding successes in Formula-1. The double sports car will be equipped by the 12-cylinder engine in volume of 6 liters and capacity of 650 l. With. Acceleration time to 100 km/h makes only 3,5 seconds, and the car is capable to overcome one kilometer for 19 seconds. The maximum speed of Ferrari Enzo – over 350 km/h. Design of the car developed known кузовное studio Pininfarina. The model Enzo bears in itself lines of race cars of Formula-1 – the streamline case and narrow interior. Doors open upwards. All major functions of steering, including a gear shift, are taken out on a wheel. The car is equipped by a 6-step box, change of drives is carried out by means of special keys on a wheel. It is supposed that will be made only 349 cars of Ferrari Enzo. The firm offers their most true and known clients, naturally, under forward orderings. The car price makes a minimum of 500 thousand euro.