BMW

BMW, “Bajerish Motoren Verke”, (BMW, Bayerisch Motoren Werke AG), the German automobile company specialising on manufacture passenger and sports cars, cars of cross-country capacity and motorcycles. The Headquarters is in Munich.

In 1913 on northern suburb of Munich Charles Rapp and Gustav Otto, the son of the inventor of an internal combustion engine Nikolausa Avgusta Otto, create two small aviamotor firms. The begun First World War brought at once numerous orders for engines for planes. Рапп and Otto decide to unite in one aviamotor factory. So in Munich there is a factory of aviation engines, which in July 1917 is registered under name Bayerische Motoren Werke («the Bavarian motor factories») — BMW. Also it is considered to be this date year of the base of BMW, and Charles Rappa and Gustav Otto its founders.

After the termination of the First World War the firm appeared on a crash threshold since under the Versailles contract to Germans forbade to make engines for planes, namely engines at that time were unique production of BMW. But enterprising Charles Rapp and Gustav Otto find a way out — the factory will be reorientated to release at first motorcycle engines, and then and motorcycles.

In 1923 from BMW factory leaves the first motorcycle R32. On motor-interior of 1923 in Paris this first motorcycle of BMW won at once reputation of the high-speed and reliable car that proved to be true absolute records of speed on the international motorcycle races of 20-h-30th years.

Simultaneously develop engine “Motor-4” which definitive assembly is made in other countries of Europe. In 1919 Frants Dimer by the plane with this engine, risen on height of 9760 metres, establishes the first world record of BMW. Manufacture receives an additional impulse after the conclusion of the confidential agreement with the Soviet Russia about delivery to it of the newest aircraft engines. The majority of the Soviet record flights of 30th years have been executed by the planes equipped with engines of BMW.

In 1928 firm (Thuringia), and together with them and the license for midget car Dixi manufacture (it was licence English Austin 7) gets car factories in Eisenach. Its manufacture begins with 1929. Dixi — the first car of BMW. In economic difficulties the midget car becomes the most popular car of Europe. To the beginning of the Second World War of BMW — one of most dynamically developing firms of the world, issued technics with sports orientation. In its active some world records: Вольфгaнг the background of Gronau on the open seaplane Dornier Wal equipped with the engine of BMW, crosses Northern Atlantic from the east on the West, Ernest Henne on motorcycle R12 equipped карданным with a drive gear, hydraulic shock absorbers and a telescopic plug (BMW invention), establishes a world record of speed for motorcycles — 279,5 km/h, not surpassed by anybody within the next 14 years.

In 1933 there is begun model “303” release — the first car of BMW with the 6-cylinder engine. This model of the first gets a characteristic radiator enclosure. In the people named BMW “nostrils”. These nostrils became a typical element of design of all cars of BMW.

In 1936 on BMW is issued well-known «328» — one of the most successful sports cars. The then it were simply vanguard technical novelties: a tubular frame, the six-cylinder engine with a head of the block from the light-metal alloys, new system of the rocker gear with bars. With 328 model BMW company so became famous in second half 30. What is the subsequent cars with a firm two-colored sign were perceived by the public as a quality symbol, reliability and beauty. With its occurrence the ideology of BMW to this day defining the concept of new models was definitively generated: «the Car — for the driver». The basic competitor, “Mercedes Benz”, follows a principle: «the Car — for passengers». Since then each firm goes the way, proving, what exactly its choice is correct.

The winner of great variety of competitions — ring races, rally, competitions in a raising on a hill, — BMW 328 has been addressed experts on a sports car and left far behind all serial sports cars.

1938 – BMW gets the license for engines Pratt – Whitney. Then model 132 which is established on well-known Junkerss Ju52 is developed. Same year the fastest pre-war model of a motorcycle, by capacity of 60 h.p. and of 210 km/h is created the maximum speed. In 1939 German racer George Mayer becomes the champion of Europe on this motorcycle. And for the first time the foreigner on a foreign motorcycle wins the British races “Senior Tourist Trophy”.

The begun war leads to a suspension of release of cars. The priority is given again to aircraft engines.

In 1944 BMWs first-ever begins release of the jet engine of BMW 109-003. Tests of rocket engines are conducted also. The Second World War end became accident for concern. Four factories which have appeared in East zone of occupation, are destroyed and dismantled. The main plant in Munich is dismantled by Englishmen. In connection with manufacture during war of aircraft engines and rockets winners issue the order on an interdiction of manufacture for three years.

Both Charles Rapp and Gustav Otto, not changed the love to motors, decide to begin all with zero again. 1-cylinder motorcycle R24 preparing in workshops practically кустарно is developed. It becomes the first post-war product of BMW. In 1951 there is also a first post-war car of model “501”. However it does not bring financial success.

In 1955 release of models R 50 and R 51 motorcycles opening new generation with completely подрессоренной a running gear begins, there is a midget car of “Isetta”, strange symbiosis of a motorcycle with car. The three-wheeled car with a door opening forward on movement, had tremendous success in poor post-war Germany. But because of followed then hobbies for the big limousines and the losses connected with it the firm appears on a crash threshold. It is a unique case for all history of BMW when the economic situation and the cars thrown out on the market have incorrectly been counted had no demand. There is a question on firm sale. “Mercedes Benz” hastened to declare its purchase, but it was prevented by small shareholders, workers of firm, its trading agents.

Reconstructing capital structure, BMW is possible to continue the activity. The third time the firm begins all anew.

1956 – designer Albrecht Graf Gertts living in New York, creates the sensational car – a sports handsome man. “BMW beat even Italians”. – so wrote newspapers in 1956 when this car has been presented. BMW 507 was offered and as a roadster, and with a rigid roof. The eight-cylinder aluminium engine in volume of 3.2 liters capacity of 150 h.p. dispersed the car to 220 km at an o’clock. In total such cars with 1956 till 1959 252 pieces have been sold. Today it is one of the most rare and expensive collection cars.

1959 – by means of new model of BMW 700 with air system of cooling the concern managed to meet internal crisis and to create a basis for the further success of mark as a whole. The success has been reached not only in sphere of sales. The coupe version gave the chance to BMW to achieve sports victories.

In 1962 concept of model 1500 – a lung. The compact. The sports. The four-door car – has been accepted in the market with such delight. That capacities did not allow to satisfy demand for these cars.

In 1966 for the first time it is presented two door car 1600-2. It formed a basis for creation of a successful series of models from 1502 to 2002 with a turbo-supercharging. Successes of “a new class” promoted development of all lineup. BMW concern could dare to revive tradition of 30th years and to begin release of six-cylinder models. In 1968 premier display of models 2500 and 2800 took place. Which allowed BMW to enter into number of the enterprises again. Issued the big sedans. Thus. 60th years became the most successful for all previous history of the enterprise.

In 1969 BMW’s translates manufacture of motorcycles to Berlin. Release of a new series of motorcycles begins. In 1976 on motorcycle R100 RS the full-size aerodynamic panel for the first time is established. In 1983 one of the most popular models of motorcycles — К100 with 4-cylinder рядным the engine with liquid cooling and fuel injection is issued. In a year of century of a motorcycle, in 1985, the factory in Berlin exhausts more than 37 thousand motorcycles. In 1989 there is a presentation of motorcycle K 1.

In 1970th years there are first cars of the well-known series of BMW — models of 3rd series, 5th series, 6th series, 7th series. With release of 5th series manufacture of essentially new generation of models of BMW began. If earlier the concern occupied mainly a niche of cars of sports type now it took the place and in a segment of comfortable sedans. A coupe 3.0 CSL. Which since 1973 wins six European championships. Allows BMW to achieve special successes. This coupe hid in itself set of technical novelties. On it the six-cylinder engine of BMW with four valves on the cylinder for the first time has been established. And its braking system has been equipped by ABS – a perfect novelty for those times.

In 1977 new break in a class “lux”. With the advent of 7th series basic updating of all series of BMW ended.

Since 1986 of BMW M3 the most successful car for shossejno-ring races in the world. The compact two-door model was in parallel developed both for a batch production, and for motor racing. The result was simply triumphal for BMW. In 1987 Italian Roberto Ravilja wins the first place in the World championship on shossejno-ring races. And within the next five years of BMW M3 dominated on a sports scene.

In 1987 the new roadster which originally reflected simply as test model, continued tradition of roadsters of BMW of 30 and 50th years. BMW Z1 has been constructed in 8000 cars and became the carrier of ultramodern technologies. Aerodynamics of this car was also at exemplary level. In 1987 BMW concern one of first-ever applies electronic system of resetting of engine power.

In 1990 a new coupe-dream: BMW 850i. Heart at this elegant coupe of a class “lux” became the engine which from any turns the car forward could shoot literally. Absolutely new integrated rear bridge united in absolutely unique image sports qualities and the highest comfortableness.

In a year of reunion of Germany concern, basing firm of BMW of Rolls-Royce GmbH, comes back to the roots which have been started up on Niva of aircraft engine production, and in 1991 represents new aircraft engine BR-700. In the early nineties in the market there are sports compact cars of the third generation of 3rd series and a coupe of 8th series.

Purchase in 1994 for 2,3 billion DM of industrial group Rover Group, and together with it and the complex largest in Great Britain on release of cars of marks Rover, Land Rover and MG became quite good step for firm. With purchase of this firm the list of cars of BMW replenished with missing cars of a midget class and off-road cars.

With 1995 the serial complete set of all cars of BMW engages an inflatable airbag for the front passenger and system of anticreeping blocking of the engine. In March of the same year the versatile person (touring) 3rd series is started in manufacture. The new car differed not only modern design, but also the most advanced technics. So, for example, for the first time in automotive industry the running gear has been almost entirely made of aluminium.

Also 1995 – a debut of new 5th series of BMW. A major principle in its working out – creation of the harmonious concept. The new car differed not only modern design, but also the most advanced technics: for the first time in automotive industry the running gear has been almost entirely made of aluminium. Application of new materials allowed to increase degree of recycling of the car to 85 percent. Exclusively rigid body provides unsurpassed level of passive safety.

In 1996 the model of BMW Z3 of 7th series is equipped for the first time with the diesel engine. Unique synthesis of dynamism and classical design represents simply delightful concept. Additional advertising to the car is created by a film «Gold eye» in which on Z3 the super spy 007 James Bond drives about. BMW Z3 became the best seller. The new factory in Spartanburge has not time to carry out all orders.

In 1997 motorcycle which cannot leave indifferent – Model R 1200 With, represents absolutely new interpretation of a road motorcycle. The sensational design combining traditional and futuristic elements. It received biggest of ever created оппозитных BMW engines. Its working volume makes 1170 смЗ. And developed capacity of 61 h.p. same year BMW represents one more car-dream. It is a question of a roadster of M which as anybody another is a true embodiment of a thoroughbred open sports car.

In 1997 of BMW presented the car of dream which forced to jump up hearts of experts. Roadster M personified an ideal of a thoroughbred sports car, as any BMW before. Its 321-strong engine M3 guarantees fascinating driving.

In the spring of 1998 debuted the fifth generation of successful sedans of 3 Series. Processed in set of the details, a new 3 Series offers not only exclusive appearance, but also the advanced engines, the newest technologies of a suspender and the best in the class safety standards.

The beginning of 1999 was marked by a debut of BMW X5 which became the first-ever Sports car for Productive leisure (Sports Activity Vehicle): the car, unique image combining elegance and a practicality, opening thereby new mobility measurements.

And the one more first place: BMW Z8, a great sports car, celebrated the premiere in 1999 and admired James Bond’s admirers in a film “And the whole world a little”.

In 1999 BMW company also gave a surprise to enthusiasts of automobile business on the Frankfurt showroom, giving futuristic concept Z9 Gran Turismo.

Now BMW, begun with small aviamotor factory, makes the production at five factories in Germany and twenty two branches scattered worldwide. It is one of few automobile firms, not using on factories of robots. All assembly on the conveyor goes only manually. On an exit – only computer preliminary treatment of critical parameters of the car.